The most common oncological diagnoses

Kidney cancer

It is a disease that mainly affects older age groups (over 60 years). If caught early, the patient can recover completely. However, if the disease gets out of the kidneys, it often happens that the disease cannot be cured. 

In the early stages, kidney cancer is usually asymptomatic. 

As the disease progresses, the following symptoms begin to appear: 

• blood in the urine; 

• persistent pain in the area of ​​the kidney under the chest; 

• swelling or palpable lumps over the side or over the front abdominal wall. 


Risk factors for the disease are: 

• obesity; 

• smoking; 

• high blood pressure; 

• a history of kidney cancer; 

• genetic disorders; 

• patient on dialysis. 




Treatment methods depend on the size of the tumor and the extent of the disease. Sometimes oncologist-led immunomodulatory treatment is also required. The basic pillars of treatment are: 

• surgical removal of the kidney or part of the kidney affected by the disease; 

• cryotherapy or ablation with radiofrequency waves that use freezing or heat to destroy tumor cells; 

• embolization (stopping the blood supply to the kidney) used mainly in high-risk patients for whom other forms of treatment are not suitable. 


The further development of the disease affects its stage, but in general, 5 out of 10 patients survive 10 years or more.

Testicular cancer

Although this cancer occurs rarely, it most often affects young men aged 15-49 years. 

Testicular cancer has the following symptoms: 

• painless testicular enlargement; 

• change in testicular consistency or hardness; 

• feeling of dull testicular pain; • feeling of non-specific extraction in the spinal cord area. 


Types of testicular cancer are divided into two basic groups: 

• seminomas; 

• non-seminomatous tumors, in particular teratomas, embryonic carcinomas, choriocarcinomas and yolk sac tumors. 

Uncommon tumors are: 

• Leydig cell tumors 1-3%; 

• Sertoli cell tumors, less than 1%. 



The first goal of treatment is to remove the affected testis. Depending on the histological type of the tumor and the extent of the disease, another procedure is determined, which may include radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Sometimes in low-risk tumors, just monitoring is enough. In the case of a more extensive nature of the disease, it is necessary to remove the lymph nodes from the back of the abdominal cavity. This procedure is called RPLND, is done in highly specialized workplaces and can cause ejaculation disorders. 

Surgical removal of the testicle 

An operation that is performed under mild general anesthesia. The oblique incision is made in the area of ​​the groin and then the testicle is separated from the spinal cord, pulled out into the surgical wound and finally surgically removed. Before the procedure, you can choose to introduce a testicular replacement into the spinal cord in the form of a silicone prosthesis. 


Treatment can cause infertility, especially during irradiation or chemotherapy, respectively. if a larger performance called RPLND is done. The risk is about 50% if the second testicle is healthy. Therefore, freezing of sperm into a sperm bank should be considered. 

For more detailed information, do not hesitate to contact us and book a consultation.

Prostate cancer

Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in the male population. It usually develops slowly and sometimes it takes several years for clinical symptoms to appear. 

The first possible symptoms of the disease are: 

• frequent urination; 

• frequent urge to urinate; 

• feeling of incomplete bladder emptying. 

These symptoms are also typical of benign prostatic enlargement. 


What is a prostate? 

The prostate is a small gland that is located in the pelvis and surrounds the initial part of the urethra. Its main function is to produce the thick white fluid needed to form ejaculate. 

Causes of prostate cancer 

The exact cause is not entirely clear. Risk factors for the development of prostate cancer include the occurrence of prostate cancer in the family (brother, father) and, according to some studies, obesity. Prostate cancer is more common in men of African-Caribbean descent and less common in men of Asian descent. The causes are unknown. 


The following tests are performed to make a diagnosis: 

• PSA marker - routine blood tests, but often unreliable, as elevated blood levels of the enzyme PSA (prostate specific antigen) can indicate any damage to the prostate, even non-malignant (accurate diagnosis will probably require MRI of the prostate and biopsy); 

• digital rectal or rectal examination of the prostate; 

• MRI of the prostate; 

• biopsy or prostate sampling for histological examination.



Immediate treatment is not required for most men. When the disease is detected in the early stages, it is enough to monitor its development. 

Treatment methods include: 

• surgical removal of the prostate laparoscopically or using a robot; 

• radiotherapy or radiation therapy, often given in combination with hormonal injections; 

• brachytherapy or implantation of radioactive particles into the prostate; 

• experimental methods of treatment - HIFU (treatment with high-frequency ultrasound waves) and cryotherapy (treatment with freezing). 

All treatments have side effects, including erectile dysfunction, urinary problems, and urine leakage. 

Living with Prostate Cancer 

Because the disease often develops slowly, the patient can live with the diagnosis for many years without requiring any treatment. Diagnosis certainly has an impact on quality of life. May cause anxiety and depression. 

If you want to talk or advise about your diagnosis, we are at your disposal.

Bladder cancer

One of the first and main symptoms of this cancer is the presence of blood in the urine, technically referred to as hematuria. Other but less frequent symptoms include: frequent urination, urge to urinate, burning when urinating. 

When the disease has spread, it can cause cachexia (weight loss), bone pain - especially pelvic pain and swelling of the lower limbs. There are several causes of bladder cancer. The most significant risk factor is smoking and work in the chemical industry, especially with synthetic dyes, plastics, textiles and other substances. Another risk factor may be previous irradiation of the small pelvis due to another cancer, such as colon cancer. Long-term bladder drainage with a catheter is also a risk factor, as are recurrent urinary tract infections and schistosomiasis, which is a rare parasitic disease and does not occur in our country. 

The diagnosis of the disease is mainly based on cystoscopy, in which a small camera is inserted through the urethra to detect the presence of a tumor. The examination is performed mainly under local anesthesia. It is not excluded that the patient will need a CT or MR examination, or both examinations to determine the extent of the disease. 

As part of the treatment, it is first necessary to remove the tumor mass from the bladder. This procedure is called TURBT. Under general anesthesia, a camera is inserted into the bladder through the urethra and the tumor is removed using an electric loop. The tissue is sent for histological examination and the next procedure is determined according to the result. The choice of the next treatment depends on the stage of the disease. It can include chemotherapy, radiation, but also the complete removal of the bladder.